An Economic Analysis of the Costs and Benefits Associated with Regular Urine Drug Testing for Chronic Pain Patients in the United States
Laffer Associates: Arthur Laffer, PhD; Robert Murphy, PhD; Wayne Winegarden, PhD
Millennium Research Institute: Amadeo Pesce, PhD, DABCC; Charles Mikel, PhD; Cameron West, PhD; Kathy Egan-City, MA, BSN; Jennifer Strickland, PharmD, BCPS; Joan M. Christie, MD
Millennium Research Institute commissioned this study to answer the question, “Is UDT cost effective for patients, health plans, health systems, and society?”
The two major outcomes of this study were:
- The research demonstrates economic benefits of clinically recommended 2 to 6 Urine Drug Tests (UDT) per year range from $7.4 billion to $25.7 billion; benefits exceed costs by factor of three.
- Increased utilization of UDT improved the probability of patient adherence, defined as a patient testing positive for all of their prescribed medications and testing negative for all non-prescribed medications and illicit drugs.